Pakistan formally the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is the sixth most populous country in the world and has one of the largest Muslim population. Its territory was a part of the pre-independence British India and has a long history of settlement and civilization including the Indus Valley Civilization. The region has been invaded by outsiders many times before it became part of British India. The territory was incorporated into British India in the nineteenth century. Since gaining independence, the country has been characterized by periods of growth interspersed with other events.

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