The Indus Valley Civilization, abbreviated IVC, was an ancient civilization that flourished in the Indus River valley.

The Indus Valley was home to the largest and possibly oldest of the four ancient urban civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, and China.



Extent and major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization. The shaded area does not include recent excavations.

It is primarily in the Sindh and Punjab provinces of modern-day Pakistan, extending westward into Balochistan province, and in northwestern and western India.

Other remains of the IVC can also be found in present-day Afghanistan, Turkmenistan and Iran.

Harappan Civilization

The mature phase of this civilization is technically known as the Harappan Civilization, after the first of its cities to be excavated, Harappa. Excavation of IVC sites has been ongoing since the 1920s, with important breakthroughs occurring as recently as 1999.

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